In the mere six weeks during which the Japanese perpetrated the Nanking Massacre starting on Dec. 13, 1937, an estimated 20,000-80,000 Chinese women were brutally raped and sexually assaulted by the invading soldiers. Other atrocities include leaving POWs outside to freeze until they perished in order to investigate potential cures for frostbite, and amputating subjects' limbs to learn about blood loss. Each girl was raped six or seven times daily. After this photo was taken, the group was driven out to the outskirts of Nanking and killed. In 2015, the prime minister of Japan officially apologized for the practice and agreed to pay a sum of 1 billion yen, or about $9 million, to the 46 surviving comfort women. All one can do is recite the facts. In September 1931 the Japanese Imperial Army invades Manchuria, and refugees flee their burning cities. After this look at the Rape of Nanking, learn about the horrors of Japan's Unit 731 that conducted disturbing experiments on live Chinese subjects during the Second Sino-Japanese War as well as other appalling Japanese war crimes committed during that period. Japanese leaders General Iwane Matsui (foreground) and Prince Asaka ride into Nanking shortly after its capture. Alexandra Hospital massacre Laha massacre Banka Island massacre Parit Sulong Massacre Palawan massacre SS Behar SS Tjisalak massacre perpetrated by Japanese submarine I-8 Wake Island massacre Tinta Massacre Bataan Death March Shin'yō Maru Incident … The atrocities Japanese soldiers committed in China during the 1930s are well documented. 8 Palawan Massacre. 6 … A Chinese man holds his son, who was wounded in a bombing, and begs for help. Japanese soldiers escort a captured Chinese fighter during the fall of Nanking. Mosques were smeared with pork fat; Hui Muslims were forced to butcher pigs; and Hui girls were forced to become “comfort women” – prostitutes regularly raped by the Japanese soldiers. ", "One old woman 62 years old went home near Hansimen and Japanese soldiers came at night and wanted to rape her," read another report from the committee. 10 Laha Airfield Massacre. They sometimes went door-to-door, dragging out women and even small children and violently gang-raping them. The scale and savagery of the Rape of Nanking defy explanation. One shows Japanese soldiers bayoneting prisoners to death in the former Chinese capital of Nanking in 1937 during the Second Sino-Japanese War. The Japanese government, for example, didn’t officially apologize for its World War II-era atrocities until 1995 – and even that relatively recent apologetic stance hasn’t been unanimous and universal. A 16-year-old girl who had been gang-raped and infected with venereal disease by Japanese soldiers during the Nanking Massacre. Various Japanese textbooks, however, have downplayed or overlooked the scale and scope of these events. According to the verdict of the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal on 10 March 1947, there are "more than 190,000 mass slaughtered civilians and Chinese soldiers killed by machine gun by the Japanese army, whose corpses have been burned to destroy proof. The denials even persist despite photographs like the ones in the gallery above that make the truth of the Nanking Massacre disturbingly clear. “The Forgotten Holocaust”: 27 Tragic Photos From The Rape Of Nanking, Mark Oliver is a writer, teacher, and father whose work has appeared on The Onion's StarWipe, Yahoo, and Cracked, and can be found on his, Inside The Mind Of Arthur Shawcross, The 300-Pound "Genesee River Killer", How Roy DeMeo Perfected The Art Of Making People Disappear, What Stephen Hawking Thinks Threatens Humankind The Most, 27 Raw Images Of When Punk Ruled New York, Join The All That's Interesting Weekly Dispatch. Dead bodies litter the area as Japanese soldiers push a cart to carry their ill-gotten gains as they loot buildings. In 1984, for example, the Japanese Army Veterans Association conducted interviews with Japanese veterans present during the Nanking Massacre in an effort to refute reports of Japanese atrocities. But she survived to come back.". From “The Second World War: Prelude to Conflict” (1963), a documentary by Encyclopædia Britannica Educational Corporation. However, death toll estimates vary widely with some ranging as low as 40,000. Young Chinese men with their hands bound together are piled into a truck. SHOCKING pictures have shed light on why soldiers commit horrific atrocities during times of war. race to see who could slaughter 100 people with their swords first, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe issued a statement, John Rabe, the Nazi who saved thousands of Chinese people from the Nanking Massacre. Japanese schoolgirls, in front of the Imperial Palace in Tokyo, Japan, wave their flags to celebrate the Japanese conquest of Nanking. And they also claim Nanjing massacre was a lie that the US used to find excuses for dropping the A-Bombs on them. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. See all videos for this article. Dangers included dengue fever, cholera, tropical ulcers, and an extreme vitamin B deficiency that led to paralysis. They made these women suffer in the worst ways possible. Rape! A young Chinese civilian kneels down, his hands tied behind his back, awaiting execution by beheading at the hands of a Japanese soldier during the Nanking Massacre. Tomoyuki Yamashita (山下 奉文, Yamashita Tomoyuki, 8 November 1885 – 23 February 1946; also called Tomobumi Yamashita) was a Japanese general of the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II.Yamashita led Japanese forces during the invasion of Malaya and Battle of Singapore, with his accomplishment of conquering Malaya and Singapore in 70 days earning him the sobriquet "The Tiger … Such killing wasn’t just as an act of senseless barbarity, either – these men were following orders. Lists about life in the Empire of Japan from 1939, at which point it was already at odds with China, to the aftermath of the devastation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki post-1945. Horrifying images show Chinese women who were raped by Japanese … Then, once they’d finished with their victims, they often murdered them. The missionaries knew of the potential wrath of the Japanese, having lived under a tenuous peace in this border region just south of occupied China. The Nanjing Massacre was a massacre (an unjust killing of many people) that happened in Nanjing, China, in December of 1937 and January of 1938.It was part of the Second Sino-Japanese War, which was the part of World War II between China and Japan.At the time, Japan was trying to take over China and Nanjing was the Chinese capital.The Japanese Army reached Nanjing on 13 December 1937 and … A three-year-old child lies dead on the ground during the Rape of Nanking. The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trial or the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal, was a military trial convened on April 29, 1946, to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for joint conspiracy to start and wage war (categorized as "Class A" crimes), conventional war crimes ("Class B") and crimes against humanity ("Class C"). Once he reached the waterfront, he witnessed the massacre of 200 men within just ten minutes. A Japanese soldier prepares to publicly behead a young Chinese boy. They fought hard, in the end losing as many as 20 million lives (the second most of any country involved in the war) to keep the Japanese Empire from conquering much of East Asia and the Pacific. Chinese prisoners being used as live target practice for Japanese soldiers trying out their bayonets. The extent to which Japanese officials were aware of such atrocities during the Nanking Massacre has long been a matter of intense debate. Among the invading army, nothing was forbidden and they believed that gave them strength. It is hard to escape the legacy of the Punch Magazine. But, all too often, when an atrocity has happened on the other side, we don’t hear much about it. However, the organizers of the researchers were surprised to find that the veterans were forthcoming about the widespread atrocities and the official magazine of the Veterans Association was forced to run an apology for the Rape of Nanking instead: “Whatever the severity of war or special circumstances of war psychology, we just lose words faced with this mass illegal killing. Department of the Army. They looted nearly every building they could find, stealing from the poor and the rich alike. To the invading army, the Rape of Nanking was sometimes even a game. The car just had to drive over these dead bodies." Some of the worst of it occurred over the six weeks after the Japanese stormed into the Chinese capital of Nanking (now known as Nanjing) in December 1937. The burned body of a Chinese man who'd been doused in kerosene and set on fire. From 1841 to 2002, the magazine cast a satirical eye on life in Britain. As many as 300,000 Chinese civilian lives were lost, and as many as 80,000 Chinese women were subjected to forced relations with soldiers. When Japanese soldiers and officials were tried and executed for war crimes just after World War II, the court found that at least 200,000 had perished during the Rape of Nanking. 14,777 Chinese prisoners of war are gathered together after surrendering to the invading Japanese army. Moreover, intense controversy surrounds these estimates, reflecting just how divisive the "forgotten Holocaust," in the words of author Iris Chang, remains to this day. 9/18/1947- (Most Recent)From: Series: Signal Corps Photograph Collection: Equipment File, ca. While Europe was struggling to hold off the Nazi war machine, China was fending off the Japanese invasion that first launched in late 1937. An article describing "The Contest To Cut Down 100 People" — a brutal competition in which two Japanese soldiers challenged one another to massacre as many people as possible. The invaders, though, didn’t even stop at simply murder. "Five returned. Then, discover the story of John Rabe, the Nazi who saved thousands of Chinese people from the Nanking Massacre. A man kneels down and awaits execution by sword. By the men’s own admission, the victims were unarmed, defenseless people. The burned down the city’s walls, the people’s homes, the surrounding forests, and even whole villages situated in their path. "She said she was too old. “Never I have heard or read such brutality,” one missionary in Nanking, James M. McCallum, wrote in his diary. The atrocities committed by the Japanese military during WWII are so brutal that it is almost impossible to comprehend them. for medical and chemical weapons research, At Japan's notorious base in Pingfang, China, real cases of multiple personality disorder, important personalities in the field of criminology. Japanese soldiers stand amid a group of dead bodies. This photo was captured just as a Japanese soldier's sword sliced through the neck of a Chinese prisoner. Conflicting memories and accounts of imperial Japan’s occupation of China and wartime atrocities remain one element of this discord. Besides, we count more than 150,000 victims of barbarian acts buried by the charity organizations. Moreover, it is important that we learn and remember the horrible crimes in our recent history so that we can make sure they never happen again. Japanese soldiers drag the dead into the Yangtze River behind a boat. It was truly a regrettable act of barbarity.”. As the Japanese marched into China, they burned down the mosques and massacred the Hui Muslims by the thousands. They sometimes went door-to-door, dragging out women and even small children and violently gang-raping them. To this day, denials of the atrocities persist despite countless firsthand witnesses from France, the United States, Germany, and Japan. The atrocities began in late 1937 and ended in early 1938. Soon after this photo was taken, the Chinese farmer was shot dead. Laborers were given nothing but rice to eat, and those who were injured were left to perish. Dead bodies lie scattered across some steps. Atrocities as the New Normal ... China continues to use its permanent seat on the UN Security Council to block important discussions of human rights issues. The Japanese Army committed numerous atrocities during its pitiless campaigns in China from 1931 to 1945. On December 13, 1937, Japanese troops began a six-week-long massacre that essentially destroyed the Chinese city of Nanking. Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images. Noda admitted, after the war ended: “We’d line them up and cut them down, from one end of the line to the other.”, What's more, this admission wasn’t an apology. They then slaughtered scores of people they happened upon. As those who are related to the prewar military, we simply apologize deeply to the people of China. In the mere six weeks during which the Japanese perpetrated the Nanking Massacre starting on Dec. 13, 1937, an estimated 20,000-80,000 Chinese women were brutally raped and sexually assaulted by the invading soldiers. Unit 731 was a top-secret Japanese military unit responsible for medical and chemical weapons research that defies belief. Ultimately, he was convicted and executed for his part in the massacre after the war, since which time the Rape of Nanking has proved to be a most contentious issue. Meanwhile, one writer for The New York Times who was on the scene wrote, "I drove down to the waterfront in my car. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Illustrator: L. G. Illingworth, from British Punch humor/satire magazine, September 5, 1945 pulled from the magazine, not a modern reproduction. The Japanese Army was moving through China at the outset of their invasion, massacring and looting with strict orders to “kill all captives.”, The Japanese didn’t stop there, though. The railroad would run through incredibly dense jungle, and was to be built largely by hand, without assistance from large industrial tools. And as many as 17 million Chinese casualties weren’t soldiers. The rape and murder that would soon envelop Nanking started before the Japanese Army ever reached the city walls. This ghoulish event, which killed more than 300 Australian and Dutch POWs, followed the Japanese capture of the Indonesian ... 9 Alexandra Hospital Massacre. Rape! When the Chinese emerged victorious with the Allies at the end of World War II, many seemed ready to exact retribution for these crimes. On October 9, 1943, an uprising of ethnic Chinese and native Suluks assaulted the Japanese Military Administration, attacking Japanese offices, police stations, … A Japanese rifleman approaches a Chinese farmer. Unit 731 (Japanese: 731部隊, Hepburn: Nana-san-ichi Butai), short for Manshu Detachment 731 and also known as Kamo Detachment,: 198 Ishii Unit, was a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) of World War II. As many as 300,000 Chinese civilian lives were lost, and as many as 80,000 Chinese women were subjected to forced … Alongside all the catastrophes that plagued Europe during World War II, the atrocities committed in Southeast Asia were every bit as disturbing -- even if most of us in the West hardly ever learn about them in school. And few of the atrocities committed in Asia during World War II were as terrible as the Nanking Massacre, also known as the Rape of Nanking. In some ways, it may be better to forget this terrible history, yet to do so would dishonor those who suffered and perished. Former Japanese prime minister Yukio Hatoyama has offered a personal apology for Japan's wartime atrocities in China and blamed tensions in the East China Sea on Tokyo. The atrocities began in late 1937 and ended in early 1938. They were civilians, unarmed and defenseless, and many of them were put through unimaginable hell before they were killed. “So that we will not have any problems on our hands,” one commander told his men, referring to any women they've raped, “either pay them money or kill them in some obscure place after you have finished.”. The concept of crimes against humanity originated in the 18th century, denouncing the atrocities of slavery and colonialism, and entered international law after World War II. 'Interest in war crimes has been revived by the conflicts in the former Yugoslavia and so actions from 50 or more years ago are increasingly being re-examined.' In 1942 germ warfare specialists distributed dysentery, cholera and typhoid in Zhejiang Province in China, but Japanese soldiers became ill and 1,700 died of the diseases, scholars say. Below is an overview of the litany of atrocities Japan committed during the Second Sino-Japanese War, which was a kind of parallel conflict alongside World War II. By the time the worst of the Rape of Nanking had ended, an estimated 300,000 people were dead – mostly within a matter of weeks. Just seconds before, Noda had scoffed at his victims for letting him kill them, saying, “The Chinese soldiers were so stupid.” He also added, "Afterward, I was often asked whether it was a big deal, and I said it was no big deal.". In 2015, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe issued a statement to mark the 70th anniversary of World War II's conclusion and drew widespread criticism for not actually apologizing in the process (which has helped fuel current tensions between China and Japan). So the soldiers rammed a stick up her. In 1937, at the beginning of the Sino-Japanese War - the conflict between Japan and China that would eventually become the Pacific branch of WWII - the Japanese invaded Nanking, the capital city of Nationalist China. During their occupation of Southeast Asian territories, the Japanese decided to build a railroad connecting Thailand and Burma. Pregnant mothers were cut open and rape victims were sodomized with bamboo sticks and bayonets until they died in agony. In 1937, at the beginning of the Sino-Japanese War - the conflict between Japan and China that would eventually become the Pacific branch of WWII - the Japanese invaded Nanking, the capital city of Nationalist China. In this lesson, students examine how two textbooks – one Japanese and the other Chinese – depict what happened during the Japanese occupation of Nanking. Some victims of the Nanking Massacre were thrown into mass, unmarked graves; others were just left to rot in the sun. 10 Japanese Atrocities From World War II. Japanese magazines bragged about a contest between two soldiers, Toshiaki Muaki and Tsuyoshi Noda, who had challenged one another in a race to see who could slaughter 100 people with their swords first. Few -- if any -- of these men were likely spared. Japanese contsantly deny these crimes and are trying to distort history by claiming that Japan liberated Asian nations. Worse yet, the people these two men cut open weren’t enemy combatants killed on the battlefield while fighting for their lives. They did, and as many as 3,000 Chinese civilians (if not more) perished from these diseases. “Rape! We estimate at least 1,000 cases a night and many by day.”, "On December 16, seven girls (ages ranged from 16 to 21) were taken away from the Military College," read a report from the International Committee (a group of foreigners who established the Nanking Safety Zone to provide haven for Nanking Massacre victims). One Japanese journalist, traveling with the 10th Army, wrote in his notes that he believed the army was moving forward with such strength because of the “tacit consent among the officers and men that they could loot and rape as they wish.”. Every desecration imaginable was pushed on them. Left: A Chinese woman is tied to a pole and forcibly kissed by a Japanese soldier. A look at the worst of Japan's crimes in WW2 also helps us understand today's world a little better, especially the animosity Korea and China still have for Japan. Over the course of the Sino-Japanese conflict and WWII, the Japanese army forced as many as 200,000 women into prostitution. And if you liked this post, be sure to check out these popular posts: We know all about the horrors that have happened on our side of the world. Within just the last ten years, dozens of Japanese officials and politicians have refused to accept responsibility or denied that it happened altogether. Decades after the end of World War II in China, Sino-Japanese relations continue to remain strained. Among other things, the unit field-tested so-called “plague bombs” by dropping disease-infected devices over cities to see whether they would cause outbreaks. They also infected civilians with diseases and then dissected them to examine the effects of the disease. Punch, a magazine of humor and satire, ran from 1841-2002. The brothels operated long hours and women were rarely granted time off, meaning they endured forced relations repeatedly every day for years. They claim that Pearl Harbor was never a sneak attack. A grinning Japanese soldier holds the severed head of a victim in his hand. Nanjing Massacre, conventional Nanking Massacre, also called Rape of Nanjing, (December 1937–January 1938), mass killing and ravaging of Chinese citizens and capitulated soldiers by soldiers of the Japanese Imperial Army after its seizure of Nanjing, China, on December 13, 1937, during the Sino-Japanese War that preceded World War II. 7 Japanese Occupation Of Nauru. Right: Elsewhere, a man is left blindfolded and tied up. 1972 - 1994 At Japan's notorious base in Pingfang, China, doctors put people in pressure chambers to see how much pressure the human body could withstand before exploding. National Archives Identifier: 292600: Creator(s): Department of Defense. CHAPTER 3: PRELUDE TO WAR: 1911–1931 83 Introduction 84 Reading 1 Expressions of Imperialism 90 Reading 2 Competition for the Region: The Russo-Japanese War 94 Reading 3 New Ways of Thinking: Racial Purity 96 Reading 4 Taisho Democracy in Japan: 1912–1926 98 Reading 5 Strengthening the Japanese Nation 102 Reading 6 First Decades of the Chinese Republic: 1911–1931 105 A seemingly endless field of dead bodies lie on the ground in the wake of the Rape of Nanking. For one, Japanese General Iwane Matsui, commander of the forces in China, claimed that he was unaware of mass crimes but nevertheless felt morally responsible. WARNING: This list contains extremely disturbing content. From the invasion of China in 1937 to the end of World War II, the Japanese military regime murdered near 3,000,000 to over 10,000,000 people, most probably almost 6,000,000 Chinese, Indonesians, Koreans, Filipinos, and Indochinese, among others, including Western prisoners of war. One of the most visible expressions of this tension arises regularly at the Yasukuni shrine. Chinese victims being forcibly buried alive during the Rape of Nanking. The documentary is the latest step in Matsuoka's 10-year campaign to expose Japan's atrocities in China. "After being stripped and raped by one or more men," a reporter for. When the Japanese Army reached Nanking, their brutality continued. The Japanese gathered 60,000 POWs and 200,000 enslaved local laborers and forced them to work day and night through monsoons and sweltering heat. Called “comfort women," these predominantly Korean women were sent throughout East Asia to work in brothels catering to the Japanese military. It was the first of many similar massacres, though none took place on the same scale as that at Nanking. Japanese troops massacre Chinese soldiers and civilians along the Yangtze River and burn the dead. 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